Wednesday, July 10, 2013

U.S. Fails to Designate Nigerian Jihadists (Boko Haram) as Foreign Terror Group

U.S. Fails to Designate Nigerian Jihadists (Boko Haram) as Foreign Terror Group


The Clarion Project - The Al-Qaeda-affiliated Boko Haram group in Nigeria is, by any definition, a foreign terrorist organization. The Obama Administration is refusing to designate it as such, arguing that it is not a direct threat to the U.S. In other words, it is choosing appeasement over moral clarity.

Boko Haram is roughly translated to mean that Western education is sacrilegious. The Islamist group is openly committed to “war” against the Federal Republic of Nigeria in order to create a “pure” Islamic country governed by Sharia law. Members often cite the Koranic verse, “anyone who is not governed by what Allah has revealed is among transgressors.”

The terrorist group was created in 2002 in Maiduguri, the capital of Nigeria’s predominantly Muslim Borno State, located in northeastern Nigeria by an Islamist cleric named Muhammad Yusuf, who established a religious complex that consisted of a mosque and an Islamic school. It attracted poor Muslim families throughout Nigeria and in neighboring countries as well. His school quickly pushed a political agenda to “create an Islamic state” in Nigeria, and his complex became a recruiting ground for jihadists against the Nigerian government.   More

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Libyan official ties Morsi to Benghazi attack

Egypt's recently deposed leader named in letter from security chief


author-image Jerome R. Corsi About | Email | Archive
Jerome R. Corsi, a Harvard Ph.D., is a WND senior staff reporter. He has authored many books, including No. 1 N.Y. Times best-sellers "The Obama Nation" and "Unfit for Command." Corsi's latest book is the forthcoming "What Went Wrong?: The Inside Story of the GOP Debacle of 2012 … And How It Can Be Avoided Next Time."
A letter by a top Libyan official blames the attack that killed U.S. Ambassador Christopher Stevens on Mohamed Morsi, the now deposed president of Egypt.
WND has verified the authenticity of the letter by Col. Mahmoud al-Sharif, the chief of the Department of Security of the Libyan government in Tripoli, written four days after the attack on the U.S. compound in Benghazi.
The letter mentions Morsi as being implicated in the planning that led to the Benghazi attack and identifies the Egyptian jihadist group Ansar Sharia as the group responsible.
The letter discloses that the bodies of three Americans killed in the attack along with Ambassador Stevens were desecrated in revenge for the production of an anti-Islam film, assumed to be “Innocence of the Muslims.” The film was produced by the imprisoned Mark Basseley Yousef, the person the Obama administration erroneously claimed was responsible for triggering for attack itself.
White House press secretary Jay Carney confirmed Wednesday the Obama administration has no change in plans to deliver F-16s to the Egyptian military. The U.S. most likely will deliver four F-16s in August, with another eight slated for December. The deliveries are part of the continuing U.S. $1.5 billion in aid scheduled to be dispersed to Egypt in the current fiscal year, despite the military coup that ousted the Muslim Brotherhood-backed Morsi.
WND was among the first to report that Morsi and his Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt allegedly were involved in the Sept. 11, 2012, Benghazi attack. Videos of the attack posted on YouTube show several jihadists pleading in an Egyptian dialect of Arabic, “Don’t shoot, don’t shoot. Dr. Morsi sent us.”
The Libyan document corroborates an Arabic-language report two days after the attack, discovered by Arabic-speaking former Muslim Brotherhood member Walid Shoebat, and another, Oct. 5, 2012. The  reports presented evidence the radical Islamic broadcaster Al-Nas TV and radical Egyptian Islamic TV preacher Safwat Hijazi were behind the protests in Cairo and the attack in Benghazi.
The Libyan letter states, according to Shoebat’s translation: “The most distinguished names that were obtained from the confessions by members of the cell, is the person, the president of Egypt, Mohamed Morsi; Safwat Hijazi; Saudi businessman Mansour Bin Kadasa, the owner of Al-Nas TV station; Muhammad Hassan, previous candidate Hazim Salah Abu-Ismael; Egyptian attorney Mamdouh Ismael; Egyptian cleric Atef Abdul Rashid; and other personalities.”
Al-Sharif’s Nov. 15, 2012, letter, seen below, was addressed to the Libyan government’s Ministry of Interior in Tripoli.

Shoebat ‘s translation of the letter:
Ministry of Interior
National Security Directorate of Tripoli
Reference Number: 442.67D
Date: September 15, 2012
Report Regarding Egyptian Accomplice Terror Cell That Raided and Burned The American Embassy in the District of Benghazi
His Excellency and dignified Interior Minister, a blessed greetings.
We are honored to bring to his Excellency’s attention regarding the arrest of the Egyptian [terror] cell, which carried out the crime and our investigation up to this date and this hour. That is, after the carrying out of the crime of invading and burning the American general consulate building in the district of Benghazi which happened on Tuesday, September 11, 2012 which resulted in the killing of Mr. Chris Stevens, the American Ambassador in the nation of Libya and Mr. Sean Smith, who finances the Department of Information of the United States Foreign Service including other employees [working] for the embassy. Based on the confessions declared by some who were arrested at the scene of the incident and through our fruitful cooperation with the Department of Security agencies in Benghazi with the information obtained shows that some of the accomplices have escaped the scene of the crime and concentrated themselves in Tripoli. Based on this provided information, an investigative and research group in the agency gained a precise location of the whereabouts this escaped cell was hiding in the vicinity of Khilat Al-Farjan. Immediately after, they were engaged by a special strike force unit, which was able to arrest persons from the cell, all of whom are Egyptian. The initial investigation shows that the membership of the group [belongs] to the jihadist group Ansar Sharia in Egypt which was established and led by Egyptian cleric Marjan Salem. In addition, there were extremely crucial information as to the financial sources of this group and the planners and executers of the operation which carried out the breaking and entering of the American Consulate in Benghazi and killing all occupants including the desecration of their bodies in revenge for the film which was produced by the Crusaders who produced the film that insults the Messenger, Peace and Prayers be upon Him. The most distinguished names that were obtained from the confessions by members of the cell, is the person, the President of Egypt, Muhammad Morsi, Safwat Hijazy and Saudi businessman Mansour Bin Kadasa, the owner of Al-Nas TV station, Muhammad Hassan, previous candidate Hazim Salah Abu-Ismael, Egyptian attorney named Mamdouh Ismael, Egyptian cleric Atef Abdul Rashid, and other personalities. We also promise your Excellency to exert all our efforts to complete all the investigations and place the final report with your Excellency with 48 hours, Lord willing.
We are honored to announce to your Excellency our continual care to work hard with innovation through out blood and soul for the sake of Libya the land of the brave.
[Please] accept the highest greetings
Colonel Mahmoud al-Sharif,
Security Chief – Tripoli
[SEAL] Department of Security
[SEAL] Department of Security, Tripoli
Office of Chief of Security
Issued
Number: 960-13-B
Date: 12-09-15
Signature
Morsi’s ties to genocide in Sudan
Shoebat has documented Morsi’s close relationship with Lt. Gen. Omar Hassan Ahmad Al-Bashir, the president of Sudan.
On Sept. 16, 2012, five days after the Benghazi attack, Bashir flew to Cairo to meet with Morsi at the Presidential Palace in Cairo’s Heliopolis district to congratulate Morsi on being elected Egypt’s president the previous June and to discuss in person bilateral relations, including plans to inaugurate an Egypt-Sudan highway.
On May 4, 2013, at the conclusion of a trip to Sudan, Morsi held a joint press conference with Bashir in the capital, Khartoum, in which the two leaders announced an agreement with Ethiopia over the management of the Eastern Nile Basin that represents approximately 86 percent of the Nile waters.
Shoebat has described Bashir as “a modern Hitler,” an Islamic tyrant responsible for the deaths of over 3 million people, all in the name of jihad against Christians.
Shoebat has additionally discovered that Bashir, working in conjunction with Bashir’s uncle, Eltayeb Mustafa, supported a fatwa in 2011 declaring that it is the duty of every Muslim to persecute Christians. The fatwa provoked a mob of Muslim thugs working for Bashir’s National Party to attack Sudanese Christians on a Kambouni playground Oct. 10, 2011, and to set fire to a Christian church in Khartoum.
Now, more than 10 years after the genocide in Darfur, the International Criminal Court, or ICC, has arrest warrants outstanding for Bashir and other Sudanese officials. The Bashir regime continues to bomb and burn civilian structures in South Kordofan and Blue Nile. The tribal regions, which include many Arabic-speaking Christians, have been the targets of what the ICC characterizes as continuing crimes against humanity.
On Sept. 11, 2012, the day of the attack on the U.S. compound at Benghazi, mobs of Islamic radicals attacked the U.S. Embassy in Cairo.
Shoebat was the first to report Bashir was behind the mobs of Islamic radicals that raided the British, German and American embassies in Khartoum around the same time.
WND has reported that the attacks by Islamic radicals in North Africa on Sept. 11, 2012, including the attacks on Benghazi and on embassies in Cairo and Khartoum, were in response to a video released Sept. 10, 2012, by al-Qaida chief Ayman al-Zawahiri. The video message called on Muslims to retaliate for a U.S. drone strike that killed Libyan al-Qaida leader Abu Yahya al-Libi in Pakistan’s Waziristan tribal area June 4, 2012.
Obama’s brother’s ties to Bashir
Shoebat has also reported that President Obama’s older brother, Malik Obama, is deeply associated with Bashir, despite Bashir’s involvement in the 2011 attack on the U.S. Embassy in Khartoum
Malik is the executive secretary for the Islamic Dawa Organization, or IDO, in Khartoum, which aims to help expand Wahhabist Islam in the African subcontinent, Shoebat noted.
Malik Obama and Bashir attended the General Conference of the Islamic Council of South Sudan and a meeting of the Board of Trustees of the Islamic Dawa Organization at which Bashir said “the enemies of Islam who attempt to impose hegemony and make a siege and to encourage plots (and evil measures) toward Sudan will fail.”
Malik Obama appears to share Bashir’s anti-Christian views. The Dawa organization of which he is executive secretary has stated in writing that “Muslims in Kenya suffer from the great challenge of the tyranny of the church which is known for aggression.”
Shoebat has noted Bashir’s expressed desire to make Sudan’s new constitution “100 percent Islamic,” operating under the rule of Islamic law, or Shariah.
WND has reported that funds contributed in the U.S. to a non-profit foundation run by Malik Obama have been diverted to support Malik’s multiple wives in Kenya.
Read more at http://www.wnd.com/2013/07/libyan-official-ties-morsi-to-benghazi-attack/#BGx0GI5SJlyeZbhe.99

White House Rolls Out Red Carpet For Terror-Supporting Cleric

 

White House Rolls Out Red Carpet For Terror-Supporting Cleric

 Posted 
Betrayal: In a new low for an administration that courts U.S. enemies, the White House has met secretly with the deputy of a Muslim cleric who has called for the killing of U.S. troops.
On June 13, of all things the National Security Council hosted Sheik Abdullah bin Bayyah for a West Wing chat, where the radical Islamist asked for more support for Hamas and Syrian "rebels," i.e. al-Qaida terrorists.
President Obama's envoy to the Muslim world, Rashad Hussain, and senior NSC aide Gayle Smith reportedly asked for the meeting as a learning session.
Well, here's what the administration apparently didn't learn — or did find out and still didn't care — when it vetted the sheik:
• Bin Bayyah works for Yusuf al-Qaradawi, who supports suicide bombings and issued a fatwa calling for attacks on U.S. soldiers in Iraq. Al-Qaradawi, who happens to be the spiritual leader of the radical Muslim Brotherhood, also once vowed to "conquer" America.
• His boss is considered so dangerous the State Department has banned him from entering the U.S. every year since 1999. Yet it apparently had no reservations granting a visa to his right-hand man. Why?
• In 2004, bin Bayyah joined a radical pro-jihad group — the International Union of Muslim Scholars — which has supported Palestinian terrorists and called for the destruction of the state of Israel.
• Last year, the sheik participated in a conference in Mauritania sponsored by the Islamic Society of North America, which the Justice Department has blacklisted as a Hamas front group and named an unindicted terrorist co-conspirator.
• During his trip to Washington, bin Bayyah also visited the ADAMS Center, a northern Virginia mosque whose leaders' homes and businesses were raided by federal agents after 9/11 for terrorist connections.
It strains credulity that the White House was in the dark about this creep. His statements and videos and associations are readily available on the Internet.
Yet it rolled out the red carpet, legitimizing him and his group — "basically the equivalent of inviting al-Qaida to the White House," said Steve Emerson of the Investigative Project on Terrorism, which exposed the secret White House meeting.
We join Emerson in calling for Congress to investigate not only why the Secret Service OK'd a known jihadist's White House visit, but also why Homeland Security signed off on his visa.

Read More At Investor's Business Daily: http://news.investors.com/ibd-editorials/062613-661589-white-house-invites-jihadist-sheik-to-tea.htm#ixzz2Ygz9Fcqn
Follow us: @IBDinvestors on Twitter | InvestorsBusinessDaily on Facebook

Documents Show Obama Officials in Tension Over British Banks

Documents Show Obama Officials in Tension Over British Banks

Bart Naylor of Public Citizen was critical of Treasury.Doug Mills/The New York TimesBart Naylor of Public Citizen was critical of the Treasury Department.
Government documents have recently emerged that offer a rare behind-the-scenes glimpse into the Obama administration’s decision-making as it prepared to take actions against two big British banks.
In the case of the banks suspected of funneling billions of dollars in tainted money through the American financial system — HSBC and Standard Chartered — authorities decided last year to level hefty fines rather than seek criminal charges. Those decisions raised concerns in Washington that some banks, having grown so large and interconnected, are too big to indict.
The internal government documents, which revealed some tension among authorities about how aggressively to pursue the cases, suggest that at least one agency, the Treasury Department, was alert to such concerns. When authorities were being blamed for letting HSBC off the hook, Treasury officials assured top aides to Timothy F. Geithner, then the Treasury secretary, that monetary penalties were coming as “quickly as possible,” according to the documents reviewed by The New York Times.
The agency also contacted and persuaded a news organization to withdraw a report that wrongly blamed Treasury for not indicting HSBC, the documents indicate. (It’s the job of the Justice Department to decide criminal charges, Treasury explained.)
Ultimately, Treasury assessed a record $875 million fine against HSBC, accusing it of allowing Mexican drug cartels to direct money through accounts in the United States. But some critics wanted more, noting that Treasury’s own internal documents cite the bank’s “egregious violations” of money laundering laws as “qualitatively worse” than other banks.
“I would like to see Treasury support zealous prosecution, and instead I see them managing their image,” said Bart Naylor, a policy advocate at Public Citizen, a nonprofit group critical of the government for not taking a harder line with HSBC.
Treasury released the internal documents to Public Citizen through a Freedom of Information Act request. The group then shared the information with The Times. A spokesman for Treasury declined to comment.
Timothy F. Geithner, the former Treasury secretary, had a more staid philosophy in investigating cases than other regulators.Jim Lo Scalzo/European Pressphoto AgencyTimothy F. Geithner, the former Treasury secretary, had a more staid philosophy in money laundering cases than other regulators.
In a sign that the British cases pitted authorities against one another, the Treasury Department raised concerns last year that New York’s banking regulator acted against Standard Chartered without sufficiently notifying federal authorities, the documents show. Treasury officials explained the concerns in an internal memo to Mr. Geithner.
The memo, internal e-mails show, was prepared for Mr. Geithner as “talking points” ahead of an October meeting with George Osborne, Britain’s chancellor of the Exchequer. In a September letter to Mr. Geithner, Mr. Osborne had expressed significant “concerns” about New York’s action, given that the United States and Britain typically collaborate closely on such cases.
While the talking points highlighted “Treasury’s coordination” with British regulators, it also distanced Mr. Geithner from the New York regulator, Benjamin M. Lawsky.
“Unfortunately,” the memo said, Mr. Lawsky’s office notified federal authorities “only hours before its public announcement.”
But people close to the case argue that federal authorities were aware that Mr. Lawsky was poised to act. Three months before filing the case, Mr. Lawsky’s office informed Treasury and other federal officials that it planned to soon take action against Standard Chartered for illegally funneling money for Iranian banks and corporations, the people close to the case said.
The tension reflected a culture clash between Mr. Lawsky’s aggressive approach and the more staid philosophy common at the Treasury Department. A former terrorism prosecutor, Mr. Lawsky adopted a broader view of Standard Chartered’s wrongdoing than federal authorities, and even threatened to revoke its state banking license. At the time, Treasury and the Justice Department were not ready to act.
Matt Anderson, a spokesman for Mr. Lawsky, declined to comment. In a speech this April, however, Mr. Lawsky played down the tensions, saying “a dose of healthy competition among regulators is helpful and necessary to safeguarding the stability of our nation’s financial system.”
But in Washington, some discussions have taken a more hostile tone as the Justice Department faces scrutiny for not indicting HSBC.
The Justice Department has explained that it follows guidelines requiring prosecutors to weigh indictments of businesses with “collateral consequences” like job losses and, in the case of big banks, a threat to the economy. And in a recent letter to Congress, the department explained that it has “contacted relevant government agencies to discuss such issues,” including federal regulators.
But in Congressional testimony in March, David S. Cohen, Treasury’s under secretary for terrorism and financial intelligence, said “The decision whether to bring criminal charges is the exclusive prerogative of criminal prosecutors.” He added that “we were not in a position to offer any meaningful guidance” in the HSBC criminal case.
But inside the Treasury Department in late 2012, shortly after Congress scolded authorities for not yet punishing HSBC, officials appeared to make the civil case a significant priority.
Over several weeks, Treasury officials consulted two of Mr. Geithner’s top lawyers, Christopher Meade and Christian Weideman. The involvement of the lawyers, who were known at Treasury as Mr. Geithner’s top problem solvers, reflected the seriousness of the approach.
Treasury officials sent the lawyers “new developments” in the HSBC case. At one point, an official assured them that Treasury was moving “as quickly as possible to put together administrative penalty actions.”
When Treasury joined the Justice Department in announcing the case in December, a media outlet ran an overnight article in which a professor speculated that Mr. Geithner had not criminally prosecuted HSBC to avoid putting it out of business.
By dawn that day, Treasury officials e-mailed one another about the article. Shortly after, National Public Radio retracted the quote and issued a statement saying that Treasury had not been involved in the decision not to indict HSBC.

Disarmament

Freedom From War

The United States Program
for General and Complete
Disarmament in a Peaceful
World

 
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE
DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLICATION 7277
Disarmament Series 5
Released September 1961
Office of Public Services
BUREAU OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price 15 cents
INTRODUCTION

The revolutionary development of modern weapons within a world divided by serious ideological differences has produced a crisis in human history. In order to overcome the danger of nuclear war now confronting mankind, the United States has introduced at the Sixteenth General Assembly of the United Nations a Program for General and Complete Disarmament in a Peaceful World.
This new program provides for the progressive reduction of the war-making capabilities of nations and the simultaneous strengthening of international institutions to settle disputes and maintain the peace. It sets forth a series of comprehensive measures which can and should be taken in order to bring about a world in which there will be freedom from war and security for all states. It is based on three principles deemed essential to the achievement of practical progress in the disarmament field:
First, there must be immediate disarmament action:
A strenuous and uninterrupted effort must be made toward the goal of general and complete disarmament; at the same time, it is important that specific measures be put into effect as soon as possible.
Second, all disarmament obligations must be subject to effective international controls:
The control organization must have the manpower, facilities, and effectiveness to assure that limitations or reductions take place as agreed. It must also be able to certify to all states that retained forces and armaments do not exceed those permitted at any stage of the disarmament process.
Third, adequate peace-keeping machinery must be established:
There is an inseparable relationship between the scaling down of national armaments on the one hand and the building up of international peace-keeping machinery and institutions on the other. Nations are unlikely to shed their means of self-protection in the absence of alternative ways to safeguard their legitimate interests. This can only be achieved through the progressive strengthening of international institutions under the United Nations and by creating a United Nations Peace Force to enforce the peace as the disarmament process proceeds.
--------
There follows a summary of the principal provisions of the United States Program for General and Complete Disarmament in a Peaceful World. The full text of the program is contained in an appendix to this pamphlet.

FREEDOM FROM WAR

THE UNITED STATES PROGRAM
FOR GENERAL AND COMPLETE DISARMAMENT
IN A PEACEFUL WORLD

SUMMARY

DISARMAMENT GOAL AND OBJECTIVES

The over-all goal of the United States is a free, secure, and peaceful world of independent states adhering to common standards of justice and international conduct and subjecting the use of force to the rule of law; a world which has achieved general and complete disarmament under effective international control; and a world in which adjustment to change takes place in accordance with the principles of the United Nations. In order to make possible the achievement of that goal, the program sets forth the following specific objectives toward which nations should direct their efforts:
  • The disbanding of all national armed forces and the prohibition of their reestablishment in any form whatsoever other than those required to preserve internal order and for contributions to a United Nations Peace Force;
  • The elimination from national arsenals of all armaments, including all weapons of mass destruction and the means for their delivery, other than those required for a United Nations Peace Force and for maintaining internal order;
  • The institution of effective means for the enforcement of international agreements, for the settlement of disputes, and for the maintenance of peace in accordance with the principles of the United Nations;
  • The establishment and effective operation of an International Disarmament Organization within the framework of the United Nations to insure compliance at all times with all disarmament obligations.

TASK OF NEGOTIATING STATES

The negotiating states are called upon to develop the program into a detailed plan for general and complete disarmament and to continue their efforts without interruption until the whole program has been achieved. To this end, they are to seek the widest possible area of agreement at the earliest possible date. At the same time, and without prejudice to progress on the disarmament program, they are to seek agreement on those immediate measures that would contribute to the common security of nations and that could facilitate and form part of the total program.

GOVERNING PRINCIPLES

The program sets forth a series of general principles to guide the negotiating states in their work. These make clear that:
  • As states relinquish their arms, the United Nations must be progressively strengthened in order to improve its capacity to assure international security and the peaceful settlement of disputes;
  • Disarmament must proceed as rapidly as possible, until it is completed, in stages containing balanced, phased, and safeguarded measures;
  • Each measure and stage should be carried out in an agreed period of time, with transition from one stage to the next to take place as soon as all measures in the preceding stage have been carried out and verified and as soon as necessary arrangements for verification of the next stage have been made;
  • Inspection and verification must establish both that nations carry out scheduled limitations or reductions and that they do not retain armed forces and armaments in excess of those permitted at any stage of the disarmament process; and
  • Disarmament must take place in a manner that will not affect adversely the security of any state.

DISARMAMENT STAGES

The program provides for progressive disarmament steps to take place in three stages and for the simultaneous strengthening of international institutions.
FIRST STAGE
The first stage contains measures which would significantly reduce the capabilities of nations to wage aggressive war. Implementation of this stage would mean that:
  • The nuclear threat would be reduced:
       All states would have adhered to a treaty effectively prohibiting the testing of nuclear weapons.
       The production of fissionable materials for use in weapons would be stopped and quantities of such materials from past production would be converted to non-weapons uses.
       States owning nuclear weapons would not relinquish control of such weapons to any nation not owning them and would not transmit to any such nation information or material necessary for their manufacture.
        States not owning nuclear weapons would not manufacture them or attempt to obtain control of such weapons belonging to other states.
       A Commission of Experts would be established to report on the feasibility and means for the verified reduction and eventual elimination of nuclear weapons stockpiles.
  • Strategic delivery vehicles would be reduced:
       Strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles of specified categories and weapons designed to counter such vehicles would be reduced to agreed levels by equitable and balanced steps; their production would be discontinued or limited; their testing would be limited or halted.
  • Arms and armed forces would be reduced:
       The armed forces of the United States and the Soviet Union would be limited to 2.1 million men each (with appropriate levels not exceeding that amount for other militarily significant states); levels of armaments would be correspondingly reduced and their production would be limited.
       An Experts Commission would be established to examine and report on the feasibility and means of accomplishing verifiable reduction and eventual elimination of all chemical, biological and radiological weapons.
  • Peaceful use of outer space would be promoted:
       The placing in orbit or stationing in outer space of weapons capable of producing mass destruction would be prohibited.
       States would give advance notification of space vehicle and missile launchings.
  • U.N. peace-keeping powers would be strengthened:
       Measures would be taken to develop and strengthen United Nations arrangements for arbitration, for the development of international law, and for the establishment in Stage II of a permanent U.N. Peace Force.
  • An International Disarmament Organization would be established for effective verification of the disarmament program:
       Its functions would be expanded progressively as disarmament proceeds.
       It would certify to all states that agreed reductions have taken place and that retained forces and armaments do not exceed permitted levels.
       It would determine the transition from one stage to the next.
  • States would be committed to other measures to reduce international tension and to protect against the chance of war by accident, miscalculation, or surprise attack:
       States would be committed to refrain from the threat or use of any type of armed force contrary to the principles of the U.N. Charter and to refrain from indirect aggression and subversion against any country.
       A U.N. peace observation group would be available to investigate any situation which might constitute a threat to or breach of the peace.
       States would be committed to give advance notice of major military movements which might cause alarm; observation posts would be established to report on concentrations and movements of military forces.
SECOND STAGE
The second stage contains a series of measures which would bring within sight a world in which there would be freedom from war. Implementation of all measures in the second stage would mean:
  • Further substantial reductions in the armed forces, armaments, and military establishments of states, including strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles and countering weapons;
  • Further development of methods for the peaceful settlement of disputes under the United Nations;
  • Establishment of a permanent international peace force within the United Nations;
  • Depending on the findings of an Experts Commission, a halt in the production of chemical, bacteriological and radiological weapons and a reduction of existing stocks or their conversion to peaceful uses;
  • On the basis of the findings of an Experts Commission, a reduction of stocks of nuclear weapons;
  • The dismantling or the conversion to peaceful uses of certain military bases and facilities wherever located; and
  • The strengthening and enlargement of the International Disarmament Organization to enable it to verify the steps taken in Stage II and to determine the transition to Stage III.
THIRD STAGE
During the third stage of the program, the states of the world, building on the experience and confidence gained in successfully implementing the measures of the first two stages, would take final steps toward the goal of a world in which:
  • States would retain only those forces, non-nuclear armaments, and establishments required for the purpose of maintaining internal order; they would also support and provide agreed manpower for a U.N. Peace Force.
  • The U.N. Peace Force, equipped with agreed types and quantities of armaments, would be fully functioning.
  • The manufacture of armaments would be prohibited except for those of agreed types and quantities to be used by the U.N. Peace Force and those required to maintain internal order. All other armaments would be destroyed or converted to peaceful purposes.
  • The peace-keeping capabilities of the United Nations would be sufficiently strong and the obligations of all states under such arrangements sufficiently far-reaching as to assure peace and the just settlement of differences in a disarmed world.
Appendix

DECLARATION ON DISARMAMENT

THE UNITED STATES PROGRAM
FOR GENERAL AND COMPLETE DISARMAMENT
IN A PEACEFUL WORLD
The Nations of the world,
Conscious of the crisis in human history produced by the revolutionary development of modern weapons within a world divided by serious ideological differences;
Determined to save present and succeeding generations from the scourge of war and the dangers and burdens of the arms race and to create conditions in which all peoples can strive freely and peacefully to fulfill their basic aspirations;
Declare their goal to be: A free, secure, and peaceful world of independent states adhering to common standards of justice and international conduct and subjecting the use of force to the rule of law; a world where adjustment to change takes place in accordance with the principles of the United Nations; a world where there shall be a permanent state of general and complete disarmament under effective international control and where the resources of nations shall be devoted to man's material, cultural, and spiritual advance;
Set forth as the objectives of a program of general and complete disarmament in a peaceful world:
(a) The disbanding of all national armed forces and the prohibition of their reestablishment in any form whatsoever other than those required to preserve internal order and for contributions to a United Nations Peace Force;
(b) The elimination from national arsenals of all armaments, including all weapons of mass destruction and the means for their delivery, other than those required for a United Nations Peace Force and for maintaining internal order;
(c) The establishment and effective operation of an International Disarmament Organization within the framework of the United Nations to ensure compliance at all times with all disarmament obligations;
(d) The institution of effective means for the enforcement of international agreements, for the settlement of disputes, and for the maintenance of peace in accordance with the principles of the United Nations.
Call on the negotiating states:
(a) To develop the outline program set forth below into an agreed plan for general and complete disarmament and to continue their efforts without interruption until the whole program has been achieved;
(b) To this end to seek to attain the widest possible area of agreement at the earliest possible date;
(c) Also to seek --- without prejudice to progress on the disarmament program --- agreement on those immediate measures that would contribute to the common security of nations and that could facilitate and form a part of that program.
Affirm that disarmament negotiations should be guided by the following principles:
(a) Disarmament shall take place as rapidly as possible until it is completed in stages containing balanced, phased and safeguarded measures, with each measure and stage to be carried out in an agreed period of time.
(b) Compliance with all disarmament obligations shall be effectively verified from their entry into force. Verification arrangements shall be instituted progressively and in such a manner as to verify not only that agreed limitations or reductions take place but also that retained armed forces and armaments do not exceed agreed levels at any stage.
(c) Disarmament shall take place in a manner that will not affect adversely the security of any state, whether or not a party to an international agreement or treaty.
(d) As states relinquish their arms, the United Nations shall be progressively strengthened in order to improve its capacity to assure international security and the peaceful settlement of differences as well as to facilitate the development of international cooperation in common tasks for the benefit of mankind.
(e) Transition from one stage of disarmament to the next shall take place as soon as all the measures in the preceding stage have been carried out and effective verification is continuing and as soon as the arrangements that have been agreed to be necessary for the next stage have been instituted.
Agree upon the following outline program for achieving general and complete disarmament:

STAGE I

A. To Establish an International Disarmament Organization:
(a) An International Disarmament Organization (IDO) shall be established within the framework of the United Nations upon entry into force of the agreement. Its functions shall be expanded progressively as required for the effective verification of the disarmament program.
(b) The IDO shall have: (1) a General Conference of all the parties; (2) a Commission consisting of representatives of all the major powers as permanent members and certain other states on a rotating basis; and (3) an Administrator who will administer the Organization subject to the direction of the Commission and who will have the authority, staff, and finances adequate to assure effective impartial implementation of the functions of the Organization.
(c) The IDO shall: (1) ensure compliance with the obligations undertaken by verifying the execution of measures agreed upon; (2) assist the states in developing the details of agreed further verification and disarmament measures; (3) provide for the establishment of such bodies as may be necessary for working out the details of further measures provided for in the program and for such other expert study groups as may be required to give continuous study to the problems of disarmament; (4) receive reports on the progress of disarmament and verification arrangements and determine the transition from one stage to the next.

B. To Reduce Armed Forces and Armaments:
(a) Force levels shall be limited to 2.1 million each for the U.S. and U.S.S.R. and to appropriate levels not exceeding 2.1 million each for all other militarily significant states. Reductions to the agreed levels will proceed by equitable, proportionate, and verified steps.
(b) Levels of armaments of prescribed types shall be reduced by equitable and balanced steps. The reductions shall be accomplished by transfers of armaments to depots supervised by the IDO. When, at specified periods during the Stage I reduction process, the states party to the agreement have agreed that the armaments and armed forces are at prescribed levels, the armaments in depots shall be destroyed or converted to peaceful uses.
(c) The production of agreed types of armaments shall be limited.
(d) A Chemical, Biological, Radiological (CBR) Experts Commission shall be established within the IDO for the purpose of examining and reporting on the feasibility and means for accomplishing the verifiable reduction and eventual elimination of CBR weapons stockpiles and the halting of their production.

C. To Contain and Reduce the Nuclear Threat:
(a) States that have not acceded to a treaty effectively prohibiting the testing of nuclear weapons shall do so.
(b) The production of fissionable materials for use in weapons shall be stopped.
(c) Upon the cessation of production of fissionable materials for use in weapons, agreed initial quantities of fissionable materials from past production shall be transferred to non-weapons purposes.
(d) Any fissionable materials transferred between countries for peaceful uses of nuclear energy shall be subject to appropriate safeguards to be developed in agreement with the IAEA.
(e) States owning nuclear weapons shall not relinquish control of such weapons to any nation not owning them and shall not transmit to any such nation information or material necessary for their manufacture. States not owning nuclear weapons shall not manufacture such weapons, attempt to obtain control of such weapons belonging to other states, or seek or receive information or materials necessary for their manufacture.
(f) A Nuclear Experts Commission consisting of representatives of the nuclear states shall be established within the IDO for the purpose of examining and reporting on the feasibility and means for accomplishing the verified reduction and eventual elimination of nuclear weapons stockpiles.

D. To Reduce Strategic Nuclear Weapons Delivery Vehicles:
(a) Strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles in specified categories and agreed types of weapons designed to counter such vehicles shall be reduced to agreed levels by equitable and balanced steps. The reduction shall be accomplished in each step by transfers to depots supervised by the IDO of vehicles that are in excess of levels agreed upon for each step. At specified periods during the Stage I reduction process, the vehicles that have been placed under supervision of the IDO shall be destroyed or converted to peaceful uses.
(b) Production of agreed categories of strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles and agreed types of weapons designed to counter such vehicles shall be discontinued or limited.
(c) Testing of agreed categories of strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles and agreed types of weapons designed to counter such vehicles shall be limited or halted.

E. To Promote the Peaceful Use of Outer Space:
(a) The placing into orbit or stationing in outer space of weapons capable c,f producing mass destruction shall be prohibited.
(b) States shall give advance notification to participating states and to the IDO of launchings of space vehicles and missiles, together with the track of the vehicle.

F. To Reduce the Risks of War by Accident, Miscalculation, and Surprise Attack:
(a) States shall give advance notification to the participating states and to the IDO of major military movements and maneuvers, on a scale as may be agreed, which might give rise to misinterpretation or cause alarm and induce countermeasures. The notification shall include the geographic areas to be used and the nature, scale and time span of the event.
(b) There shall be established observation posts at such locations as major ports, railway centers, motor highways, and air bases to report on concentrations and movements of military forces.
(c) There shall also be established such additional inspection arrangements to reduce the danger of surprise attack as may be agreed.
(d) An international commission shall be established immediately within the IDO to examine and make recommendations on the possibility of further measures to reduce the risks of nuclear war by accident, miscalculation, or failure of communication.

G. To Keep the Peace:
(a) States shall reaffirm their obligations under the U.N. Charter to refrain from the threat or use of any type of armed force--including nuclear, conventional, or CBR--contrary to the principles of the U.N. Charter.
(b) States shall agree to refrain from indirect aggression and subversion against any country.
(c) States shall use all appropriate processes for the peaceful settlement of disputes and shall seek within the United Nations further arrangements for the peaceful settlement of international disputes and for the codification and progressive development of international law.
(d) States shall develop arrangements in Stage I for the establishment in Stage II of a U.N. Peace Force.
(e) A U.N. peace observation group shall be staffed with a standing cadre of observers who could be dispatched to investigate any situation which might constitute a threat to or breach of the peace.

STAGE II

A. International Disarmament Organization:
The powers and responsibilities of the IDO shall be progressively enlarged in order to give it the capabilities to verify the measures undertaken in Stage II.

B. To Further Reduce Armed Forces and Armaments:
(a) Levels of forces for the U.S., U.S.S.R., and other militarily significant states shall be further reduced by substantial amounts to agreed levels in equitable and balanced steps.
(b) Levels of armaments of prescribed types shall be further reduced by equitable and balanced steps. The reduction shall be accomplished by transfers of armaments to depots supervised by the IDO. When, at specified periods during the Stage II reduction process, the parties have agreed that the armaments and armed forces are at prescribed levels, the armaments in depots shall be destroyed or converted to peaceful uses.
(c) There shall be further agreed restrictions on the production of armaments.
(d) Agreed military bases and facilities wherever they are located shall be dismantled or converted to peaceful uses.
(e) Depending upon the findings of the Experts Commission on CBR weapons, the production of CBR weapons shall be halted, existing stocks progressively reduced, and the resulting excess quantities destroyed or converted to peaceful uses.

C. To Further Reduce the Nuclear Threat:
Stocks of nuclear weapons shall be progressively reduced to the minimum levels which can be agreed upon as a result of the findings of the Nuclear Experts Commission; the resulting excess of fissionable material shall be transferred to peaceful purposes.

D. To Further Reduce Strategic Nuclear Weapons Delivery Vehicles:
Further reductions in the stocks of strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles and agreed types of weapons designed to counter such vehicles shall be carried out in accordance with the procedure outlined in Stage I.

E. To Keep the Peace:
During Stage II, states shall develop further the peace-keeping processes of the United Nations, to the end that the United Nations can effectively in Stage III deter or suppress any threat or use of force in violation of the purposes and principles of the United Nations:
(a) States shall agree upon strengthening the structure, authority, and operation of the United Nations so as to assure that the United Nations will be able effectively to protect states against threats to or breaches of the peace.
(b) The U.N. Peace Force shall be established and progressively strengthened.
(c) States shall also agree upon further improvements and developments in rules of international conduct and in processes for peaceful settlement of disputes and differences.

STAGE III

By the time Stage II has been completed, the confidence produced through a verified disarmament program, the acceptance of rules of peaceful international behavior, and the development of strengthened international peace-keeping processes within the framework of the U.N. should have reached a point where the states of the world can move forward to Stage III. In Stage III progressive controlled disarmament and continuously developing principles and procedures of international law would proceed to a point where no state would have the military power to challenge the progressively strengthened U.N. Peace Force and all international disputes would be settled according to the agreed principles of international conduct.

The progressive steps to be taken during the final phase of the disarmament program would be directed toward the attainment of a world in which:
(a) States would retain only those forces, non-nuclear armaments, and establishments required for the purpose of maintaining internal order; they would also support and provide agreed manpower for a U.N Peace Force.
(b) The U.N. Peace Force, equipped with agreed types and quantities of armaments, would be fully functioning.
(c) The manufacture of armaments would be prohibited except for those of agreed types and quantities to be used by the U.N. Peace Force and those required to maintain internal order. All other armaments would be destroyed or converted to peaceful purposes.
(d) The peace-keeping capabilities of the United Nations would be sufficiently strong and the obligations of all states under such arrangements sufficiently far-reaching as to assure peace and the just settlement of differences in a disarmed world.
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1961 O 609147 [end of document]

ayments Payment thresholds

Payments

Payment thresholds

There are several earnings thresholds that impact whether you're eligible to be paid for your AdSense earnings. These thresholds vary depending on the reporting currency in your account.
Thresholds Tax Information Entry Address Verification Form of Payment Entry Payment Cancellation
U.S. Dollar (USD) $0 $10 $0 $100 $10
Euro (EUR) N/A €10 €0 €70 €10
Great British Pound (GBP) N/A £10 £0 £60 £10
Australian Dollar (AUD) N/A A$15 A$0 A$150 A$15
Canadian Dollar (CAD) C$0 C$10 C$0 C$100 C$10
Chinese Renminbi (RMB) N/A ¥80 ¥0 ¥400 ¥80
Czech Koruna (CZK) N/A Kč200 Kč0 Kč2000 Kč200
Danish Krone (DKK) N/A kr60 kr0 kr600 kr60
Hong Kong Dollar (HKD) N/A HK$100 HK$0 HK$1,000 HK$100
Hungarian Forint (HUF) N/A Ft2,000 Ft0 Ft20,000 Ft2,000
Israeli Shekel (ILS) N/A ₪40 ₪0 ₪400 ₪40
Japanese Yen (JPY) N/A ¥1000 ¥0 ¥10000 ¥1000
Mexican Peso (MXN) Mex$0 Mex$100 Mex$0 Mex$1,000 Mex$100
New Zealand Dollar (NZD) N/A $100 $0 $1,000 $100
Norwegian Krone (NOK) N/A kr60 kr0 kr600 kr60
Polish Zloty (PLN) N/A zł30 zł0 zł300 zł30
South African Rand (ZAR) N/A R100 R0 R1000 R100
Swedish Krona (SEK) N/A kr70 kr0 kr700 kr70
Swiss Franc (CHF) N/A CHF10 CHF0 CHF100 CHF10
Turkish Lira (TRY) N/A TL10 TL0 TL100 TL10

Tax Information Entry Threshold

Depending on your location, you may be required to provide certain information for tax purposes. If you are required to submit tax information, you will be able to do so when you first log in to your account.
To learn whether you need to provide tax information and, if necessary, how to submit it:
  1. Sign in to your account.
  2. Visit the Payee profile page.
  3. In the 'tax information' section, click 'update tax information'.
  4. If you're required to enter tax information, you'll see a tax wizard prompting you to enter your information.

Address Verification Threshold

To verify the accuracy of your account information, we will mail a personal identification number (PIN) to your payment address when your earnings reach the verification threshold. You'll then be required to enter this PIN in your account. Learn more about address verification.
For more information, please visit the payments guide.

Payment Threshold

You will be paid out when your unpaid earnings reach the payments threshold and you've completed the necessary steps to get paid. Payment thresholds are based on the reporting currency that your AdSense Payments page is displayed in.
You may opt to increase your payment threshold to a value greater than the default payment threshold if you would like to receive your payments in larger increments.

Cancellation Threshold

If you decide to cancel your account and your account balance is greater than the cancellation threshold, you'll receive your final payment within approximately 90 days of the end of the month, provided that you've completed the necessary steps to get paid.

Google AdSense Online Terms of Service

Google AdSense Online Terms of Service
1.    Welcome to AdSense!
Thanks for your interest in our search and advertising services (the “Services”)!  
By using our Services, you agree to these terms (the “AdSense Terms”), the AdSense Program Policies and the Google Branding Guidelines  (collectively, the “Agreement”). If ever in conflict, to the extent of such conflict, the AdSense Terms will take precedence over any other terms of the Agreement.  Please read the Agreement carefully.
As used in the Agreement, “you” or “publisher” means the individual or entity using the Services (and/or any individual, entity or successor entity, agency or network acting on your behalf), “we,” “us” or “Google” means Google Inc., and the “parties” means you and Google.  
2.    Access to the Services; AdSense Accounts
Your use of the Services is subject to your creation and our approval of an AdSense account (an “Account”).  We have the right to refuse or limit your access to the Services. By submitting an application to use the Services, if you are an individual, you represent that you are at least 18 years of age.  You may only have one Account.  
By enrolling in AdSense, you permit Google to serve, as applicable, (i) advertisements and other content (“Ads”), (ii) Google search boxes and search results, and (iii) related search queries and other links to your websites, mobile applications, media players, mobile content, and/or other properties approved by Google (each individually a “Property”).  In addition, you grant Google the right to access, index and cache the Properties, or any portion thereof, including by automated means. Google may refuse to provide the Services to any Property.
Any Property that is a software application and accesses our Services (a) may require preapproval by Google in writing, and (b) must comply with Google’s Software Principles.
3.    Using our Services
You may use our Services only as permitted by this Agreement and any applicable laws.  Don’t misuse our Services. For example, don’t interfere with our Services or try to access them using a method other than the interface and the instructions that we provide.
You may discontinue your use of any Service at any time by removing the relevant code from your Properties.  
4.    Changes to our Services; Changes to the Agreement
We are constantly changing and improving our Services. We may add or remove functionalities or features of the Services at any time, and we may suspend or stop a Service altogether.
We may modify the Agreement at any time. We’ll post any modifications to the AdSense Terms on this page and any modifications to the AdSense Program Policies or the Google Branding Guidelines on their respective pages.  Changes will not apply retroactively and generally will become effective 14 days after they are posted. However, changes addressing new functions for a Service or changes made for legal reasons will be effective immediately. If you don’t agree to any modified terms in the Agreement, you’ll have to stop using the affected Services.
5.    Payments
Subject to this Section 5 and Section 10 of these AdSense Terms, you will receive a payment related to the number of valid clicks on Ads displayed on your Properties, the number of valid impressions of Ads displayed on your Properties, or other valid events performed in connection with the display of Ads on your Properties, in each case as determined by Google.  
Except in the event of termination, we will pay you by the end of the calendar month following any calendar month in which the earned balance in your Account equals or exceeds the applicable payment threshold.  If you implement search Services, our payments may be offset by any applicable fees for such Services.
Unless expressly authorized in writing by Google, you may not enter into any type of arrangement with a third party where that third party receives payments made to you under the Agreement or other financial benefit in relation to the Services.
Payments will be calculated solely based on our accounting. Payments to you may be withheld to reflect or adjusted to exclude any amounts refunded or credited to advertisers and any amounts arising from invalid activity, as determined by Google in its sole discretion.  Invalid activity is determined by Google in all cases and includes, but is not limited to, (i) spam, invalid queries, invalid impressions or invalid clicks on Ads generated by any person, bot, automated program or similar device, including through any clicks or impressions originating from your IP addresses or computers under your control; (ii) clicks solicited or impressions generated by payment of money, false representation, or requests for end users to click on Ads or take other actions; (iii) Ads served to end users whose browsers have JavaScript disabled; and (iv) clicks or impressions co-mingled with a significant amount of the activity described in (i, ii, and iii) above.  
In addition to our other rights and remedies, we may (a) withhold and offset any payments owed to you under the Agreement against any fees you owe us under the Agreement or any other agreement, or (b) require you to refund us within 30 days of any invoice, any amounts we may have overpaid to you in prior periods.  If you dispute any payment made or withheld relating to the Services, you must notify Google in writing within 30 days of any such payment.  If you do not, any claim relating to the disputed payment is waived.  If an advertiser whose Ads are displayed on any Property defaults on payment to Google, we may withhold payment or charge back your account.
To ensure proper payment, you are responsible for providing and maintaining accurate contact and payment information in your Account.  You are responsible for any charges assessed by your bank or payment provider.
6. Taxes
As between you and Google, Google is responsible for all taxes (if any) associated with the transactions between Google and advertisers in connection with Ads displayed on the Properties.  You are responsible for all taxes (if any) associated with the Services, other than taxes based on Google’s net income.  All payments to you from Google in relation to the Services will be treated as inclusive of tax (if applicable) and will not be adjusted.  
7.    Intellectual Property; Brand Features
Other than as set out expressly in the Agreement, neither party will acquire any right, title or interest in any intellectual property rights belonging to the other party or to the other party’s licensors.
If Google provides you with software in connection with the Services, we grant you a  non-exclusive, non-sublicensable license for use of such software.  This license is for the sole purpose of enabling you to use and enjoy the benefit of the Services as provided by Google, in the manner permitted by the Agreement.  Other than distributing content via the AdMob SDK, you may not copy, modify, distribute, sell, or lease any part of our Services or included software, nor may you reverse engineer or attempt to extract the source code of that software, unless laws prohibit those restrictions or you have our written permission.  You will not remove, obscure, or alter Google's copyright notice, Brand Features, or other proprietary rights notices affixed to or contained within any Google services, software, or documentation.
We grant you a non-exclusive, non-sublicensable license to use Google’s trade names, trademarks, service marks, logos, domain names, and other distinctive brand features (“Brand Features”) solely in connection with your use of the Services and in accordance with the Agreement and the Google Branding Guidelines.  We may revoke this license at any time.  Any goodwill arising from your use of Google’s Brand Features will belong to Google.
We may include your name and Brand Features in our presentations, marketing materials, customer lists and financial reports.
8.    Privacy
Our privacy policy explains how we treat your personal data and protect your privacy when you use our Services. By using our Services, you agree that Google can use such data in accordance with our privacy policy.
You will ensure that at all times you use the Services, the Properties have a clearly labeled and easily accessible privacy policy that provides end users with clear and comprehensive information about cookies, device-specific information, location information and other information stored on, accessed on, or collected from end users’ devices in connection with the Services, including, as applicable, information about end users’ options for cookie management.  You will use commercially reasonable efforts to ensure that an end user gives consent to the storing and accessing of cookies, device-specific information, location information or other information on the end user's device in connection with the Services where such consent is required by law.
9.    Confidentiality
You agree not to disclose Google Confidential Information without our prior written consent. "Google Confidential Information" includes: (a) all Google software, technology and documentation relating to the Services; (b) click-through rates or other statistics relating to Property performance as pertaining to the Services; (c) the existence of, and information about, beta features in a Service; and (d) any other information made available by Google that is marked confidential or would normally be considered confidential under the circumstances in which it is presented.  Google Confidential Information does not include information that you already knew prior to your use of the Services, that becomes public through no fault of yours, that was independently developed by you, or that was lawfully given to you by a third party.  Notwithstanding this Section 9, you may accurately disclose the amount of Google’s gross payments resulting from your use of the Services.  
10. Termination
You may terminate the Agreement at any time by completing the account cancellation process.  The Agreement will be considered terminated within 10 business days of Google's receipt of your notice.   If you terminate the Agreement and your earned balance equals or exceeds the applicable threshold, we will pay you your earned balance within approximately 90 days after the end of the calendar month in which the Agreement is terminated.  Any earned balance below the applicable threshold will remain unpaid.
Google may at any time terminate the Agreement, or suspend or terminate the participation of any Property in the Services for any reason.  If we terminate the Agreement due to your breach or due to invalid activity, we may withhold unpaid amounts or charge back your account. If you breach the Agreement or Google suspends or terminates your Account, you (i) will not be allowed to create a new Account, and (ii) may not be permitted to monetize content on other Google products.
11.  Indemnity

You agree to indemnify and defend Google, its affiliates, agents, and advertisers from and against any and all third-party claims and liabilities arising out of or related to the Properties, including any content served on the Properties that is not provided by Google, your use of the Services, or your breach of any term of the Agreement.  Google’s advertisers are third-party beneficiaries of this indemnity.

12. Representations; Warranties; Disclaimers
You represent and warrant that (i) you have full power and authority to enter into the Agreement; (ii) you are the owner of, or are legally authorized to act on behalf of the owner of, each Property; (iii) you are the technical and editorial decision maker in relation to each Property on which the Services are implemented and that you have control over the way in which the Services are implemented on each Property; (iv) Google has never previously terminated or otherwise disabled an AdSense account created by you due to your breach of the Agreement or due to invalid activity; (v) entering into or performing under the Agreement will not violate any agreement you have with a third party or any third-party rights; and (vi) all of the information provided by you to Google is correct and current.
OTHER THAN AS EXPRESSLY SET OUT IN THE AGREEMENT, WE DO NOT MAKE ANY PROMISES ABOUT THE SERVICES.  FOR EXAMPLE, WE DON’T MAKE ANY COMMITMENTS ABOUT THE CONTENT WITHIN THE SERVICES, THE SPECIFIC FUNCTION OF THE SERVICES, OR THEIR PROFITABILITY, RELIABILITY, AVAILABILITY, OR ABILITY TO MEET YOUR NEEDS. WE PROVIDE EACH SERVICE “AS IS”.
TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW, WE EXCLUDE ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, STATUTORY OR IMPLIED.  WE EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM THE WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF NONINFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY, AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
13. Limitation of Liability
TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW, EXCEPT FOR ANY INDEMNIFICATION OBLIGATIONS HEREUNDER OR YOUR BREACH OF ANY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS, CONFIDENTIALITY OBLIGATIONS AND/OR PROPRIETARY INTERESTS RELATING TO THE AGREEMENT, (i) IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY BE LIABLE UNDER THE AGREEMENT FOR ANY CONSEQUENTIAL, SPECIAL, INDIRECT, EXEMPLARY, OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT OR ANY OTHER THEORY, EVEN IF SUCH PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES AND NOTWITHSTANDING ANY FAILURE OF ESSENTIAL PURPOSE OF ANY LIMITED REMEDY, AND (ii) EACH PARTY’S AGGREGATE LIABILITY UNDER THE AGREEMENT IS LIMITED TO THE NET AMOUNT RECEIVED AND RETAINED BY THAT PARTICULAR PARTY IN CONNECTION WITH THIS AGREEMENT DURING THE THREE MONTH PERIOD IMMEDIATELY PRECEDING THE DATE OF THE CLAIM.  Each party acknowledges that the other party has entered into the Agreement relying on the limitations of liability stated herein and that those limitations are an essential basis of the bargain between the parties.
14. Miscellaneous
Entire Agreement; Amendments.  The Agreement is our entire agreement relating to your use of the Services and supersedes any prior or contemporaneous agreements on that subject.  This Agreement may be amended (i) in a writing signed by both parties that expressly states that it is amending the Agreement, or (ii) as set forth in Section 4, if you keep using the Services after Google modifies the Agreement.  
Assignment.  You may not assign or transfer any of your rights under the Agreement.
Independent Contractors.  The parties are independent contractors and the Agreement does not create an agency, partnership, or joint venture.
No Third-Party Beneficiaries. Other than as set forth in Section 11, this Agreement does not create any third-party beneficiary rights.
No Waiver.  Other than as set forth in Section 5, the failure of either party to enforce any provision of the Agreement will not constitute a waiver.
Severability.  If it turns out that a particular term of the Agreement is not enforceable, the balance of the Agreement will remain in full force and effect.
Survival.  Sections 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, and 14 of these AdSense Terms will survive termination.
Governing Law; Venue.  All claims arising out of or relating to this Agreement or the Services will be governed by California law, excluding California’s conflict of laws rules, and will be litigated exclusively in the federal or state courts of Santa Clara County, California, USA, and you and Google consent to personal jurisdiction in those courts.
Force Majeure.  Neither party will be liable for inadequate performance to the extent caused by a condition (for example, natural disaster, act of war or terrorism, riot, labor condition, governmental action, and Internet disturbance) that was beyond the party’s reasonable control.
Communications.  In connection with your use of the Services, we may contact you regarding service announcements, administrative messages, and other information. You may opt out of some of those communications in your Account settings.  For information about how to contact Google, please visit our contact page.
*              *              *
15. Service-Specific Terms
If you choose to implement any of the following Services on a Property, you also agree to the additional terms identified below:
Custom Search Engine: the Custom Search Engine Terms of Service.
Yes, I have read and accept the Agreement.
(You represent that you are an administrator for this Account and that you are authorized to act on behalf of, and bind to this Agreement, the owner of this Account.)
Ask me the next time I log in.
(Note: If these Terms and Conditions are not accepted, you will not be able to continue using AdSense.)

Several documents signed during joint work of Russian Emergency Ministry and FEMA

Several documents signed during joint work of Russian Emergency Ministry and FEMA rss

26 June 11:32
The Russian Emergency Situations Ministry and the USA Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) are going to exchange experts during joint rescue operations in major disasters. This is provided by a protocol of the fourth meeting of the U.S.-Russia Bilateral Presidential Commission Working Group on Emergency Situations and seventeenth meeting of Joint U.S.-Russia Cooperation Committee on Emergency Situations, which took place in Washington on 25 June.
The document provides for expert cooperation in disaster response operations and to study the latest practices.
In addition, the parties approved of U.S.-Russian cooperation in this field in 2013-2014, which envisages exchange of experience including in monitoring and forecasting emergency situations, training of rescuers, development of mine-rescuing and provision of security at mass events.
At the end of the meeting the parties expressed their satisfaction with the level of cooperation between the Russian Federation and the United States in the area of emergency prevention and response and agreed to develop it in order to respond efficiently to all kinds of disasters.

What’s Really Behind the Rumor That DHS Is Bringing ’15,000 Russian Soldiers’ Onto U.S. Soil?

What’s Really Behind the Rumor That DHS Is Bringing ’15,000 Russian Soldiers’ Onto U.S. Soil?

With headlines like “DHS: Napolitano Is Bringing 15,000 Russian Troops to the U.S.” and others following similar suit, you might be wondering what is going on here.
It turns out, a whole lot of rumor.
The rumor mill had been churning out that “15,000 Russian soldiers trained in disaster relief and ‘crowd functions’ [i.e. riot control be pre-positioned to FEMA Region III during an unspecified upcoming disaster."
Rumor Debunk Russian Soldiers Are Not Coming to U.S. for Disaster Relief
Russian soldiers march at the Red Square in Moscow, on May 9, 2013, during Victory Day parade. Fighter jets screamed over Red Square and heavy tanks rumbled over its cobblestones as Russia flexed today its military muscle on the anniversary of its costly victory over Nazi Germany in World War II. (Photo: YURI KADOBNOV/AFP/Getty Images)
Snopes, a website whose mission it is to correct misinformation, called such claims “alarmist, far-fetched interpretation of the original announcement, which said nothing about Russia’s providing security for events taking place within the U.S.”
The announcement that spurred this rumor was about the Russian Emergency Situations Ministry and the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which is part of the Department of Homeland Security, agreeing to “exchange experts during joint rescue operations in major disasters.” This agreement was made last month and is said to be a renewable of an already held partnership.
According to the Russian government website, the U.S.-Russia Bilateral Presidential Commission Working Group on Emergency Situations created a protocol “for expert cooperation in disaster response operations and to study the latest practices.”
The Russian News agency Ria Novosti further dunked the rumor, saying last week it confirmed with a FEMA spokesman that there would be “no exchange of security or military personnel.”
“The agreement continues information-sharing meetings and observation opportunities with first responders and emergency managers,” the spokesman said, according to Ria Novosti.
Here’s a video that helped spread some of the rumors: